The opportunity

Multiple industrial and urban symbiosis networks are already operational in Sweden and clearly show how local and regional resource collaborations can effectively address resource- and environmental challenges, contribute to more sustainable urban and rural development, and increase business competitiveness. However, as the majority of organisations only focus on their core businesses and traditional value chains, opportunities for productive utilisation of non-product outputs as alternative inputs are often inadequately explored and pursued. Therefore, there is still a large and unexploited potential to scale up industrial and urban symbiosis and associated environmental, business and development benefits.